Content types are essential in Drupal. they are a collection of fields.
You can add them through the structure tab:
First you add the content type name and first titel field, then you add the fields. Then you can manage the input en output.
Many configurations are possible... menu links, published or not,..
The fields are shown in alfabetic order.
There are many field types...
Whit the reference you can pint to other node types or taxonomy terms.
You can even reference to other views. They appear as a link.
If possible use a field you already used. It saves space in the database.
You see the input page. The widgets are the way you do the input..
The output. You even can hide the output of a field...